Such demes are usually considered to be susceptible to inbreeding, with inbreeding avoidance becoming a major force explaining dispersal strategies. Deme, Greek Dēmos, in ancient Greece, country district or village, as distinct from a polis, or city-state. State managers of ungulate herds rou- tinely treat demes as herd segments and are chal- The spatial autocorrelation was predominantly attributed to clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules. (A) Solid symbols (circles and triangles) are focal alfalfa locations from which arthropods and plants were collected: Blue sites are locations where the Melissa blue butterfly (L. melissa) has colonized the novel host; green sites are alfalfa locations not colonized by the butterfly. We find that social structure is highly effective in maintaining high genotypic and genetic diversity levels, without invoking sex-biased dispersal or inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. A deme is a subset of a population, refers to local population (group of individuals) that are connected to other demes by dispersal in a meta population. They discovered that these ants have two discrete dispersal modes—diffusion and jump dispersal. These events result in the metapopulation 2.1 Long-distance dispersal. Corresponding Author. Many of the wooded areas house insular populations of eastern woodrats (Neotoma floridana attwateri). 1 Map of study locations, dispersal surface, and images of butterflies, ants and caterpillar. Time course of the evolution of dispersal in populations of 10 demes with and without inbreeding load for three demic sizes N = 10, 50, and 100. Nathalie Machon. The long-dashed horizontal line is the theoretically expected dispersal rate under kin competition avoidance (see Table 1 ). In that case, demes would be the metric of scale across which dispersal could be measured. After accounting for the clonal component, we did not find significant spatial autocorrelation in gene diversity. The high degree of aggregation and the patterns of dispersal strongly suggest that the population is concentrated in demes, corresponding with single boulders, among which migration is extremely limited. Utilizing disease surveillance to examine gene flow and dispersal in white-tailed deer Amy C. Kelly1*, Nohra E. Mateus-Pinilla1,2, Marlis Douglas2, Michael Douglas2, William Brown3, Marilyn O. Ruiz3, John Killefer1, Paul Shelton4, Tom Beissel4 and Jan Novakofski1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, 1503 S. Maryland Dr., Urbana, IL 61801, USA; 2Illinois Natural When a deme gets geographically isolated from other demes of the same species, gene-flow between these demes will stop which could lead to speciation after a long time. 694 Journal of Biogeography 40, 693–706 ª 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd The former refers to the case that limited gene dispersal in continuous populations produces demes that are panmictic internally, but are isolated to some extent from adjacent demes. extinction) and because these demes are connected through dispersal, if any single deme becomes ex-tinct, then there is a nonzero probability that the patch will be recolonized by individuals from another deme. Fig. In Perrin & Mazalov ( 1999 ), there are infinite numbers of demes, each offering an equivalent number of breeding sites, which in a saturated habitat equals the number of breeding females. dispersal beyond neighbouring demes is allowed, rare long-distance migration leads to the establishment of pocket populations in advance of the main invasion front and results in Stepping-stone models with a large number of demes can approximate spatially continuous population models [23, 24], and this can be exploited to produce maps of approximate dispersal rates and population density across continuous space. The evolving traits are the sex‐specific dispersal probabilities … structure of C. alliodora in relation to major dispersal barriers, (2) compare levels of genetic variation within and among major geographic regions, and (3) test for relationships between significant genetic groupings (demes) and wet/dry-zone ecotypes. This pattern may indicate low logged demes, up to 100 m in uneven-aged demes, with the strongest autocorrelation up to 150 m for burnt demes. groups, or demes, of a single population of animals that share one or more common ranges outside the breeding season. nacity,juvenile dispersal, and breeding movements on deme structure and discreteness have not been examined. As species become more widespread, the source of particular populations will become more difficult to assess. Relationship between genetic structure and seed and pollen dispersal in the endangered orchid Spiranthes spiralis. Over time, an individual patch may therefore experience multiple extinctions and recolonization events. Local diffusion occurs at a maximum rate of 150 m yr −1, whereas jump dispersal resulted in annual rates of spread of >160 kmyr 1, driven largely by association with humans. Contrary to an earlier prediction, male-biased dispersal also reduced haplotype frequency, and this probably stems from the relative excess of wild-type genotypes among dispersers compared to the deme residents. Male dispersal was unconditional on deme‐specific densities, and the majority of the first‐generation males became dispersed from both demes, whereas female dispersal was strongly density dependent, so that dispersal took place exclusively from the high‐density to the low‐density deme. The long-dashed horizontal line is the theoretically expected dispersal rate under kin competition avoidance (see Table 1).The short-dashed curve corresponds to the simulations performed without genetic load. SPLATCHE3 implements three new demographic models allowing the simulation of long-distance dispersal (LDD) events. STUDY AREA The study was conducted in the east-central Superior National Forest However, for increasing cost the ES dispersal rate converges to a value independent of the distribution of dispersal distance. The optimum Bayesian clustering model included 21 genetic groups, indicating restricted gene flow and dispersal among hierarchical groups of demes. Time course of the evolution of dispersal in populations of 10 demes with and without inbreeding load for three demic sizes N = 10, 50, and 100. ... spatially explicit model of a metapopulation consisting of 10 demes distributed in a linear array. P. D. Rymer et al. A meta population is any population with demes. Significant differentiation among these 21 metapopulations was also supported by AMOVA and other nonparametric methods of hypothesis testing based on DNA similarity coefficients. However, metapopulation dynamics within a homoge-neous environment, in which coevolutionary parameters are identical in all demes, do not in themselves stabilise a model which would otherwise be unstable in a single population [30]. These results are in contrast to previous analyses of similar models. Joint Evolution of Dispersal and Inbreeding Load | Genetics In its previous version, the programme could only simulate migration between neighbouring demes under a stepping-stone migration model. dispersal between demes and extinction-recolonisation events, driving local adaptation of hosts or parasites [29]. A forest-prairie ecotone exists in eastern Kansas. Dispersal allows gene flow to occur among demes, and lack of it allows genetic drift to cause differentiation to occur among demes. Speciation and demes. Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations. Speciation could occur at the level of demes. class of dispersal kernels which spans the two extremes of well-mixed growth and wavelike spreading, we ob-tain a comprehensive picture of neutral evolution in dispersal-accelerated range expansions. As nouns the difference between dispersion and dispersal is that dispersion is the state of being dispersed; dispersedness while dispersal is the act or result of dispersing or scattering; dispersion. This chapter analyzes deer move- ments and social behavior as a basis for identifying deer demes in part of northeastern Minnesota. when the average productivity of demes was low, either because few adult females bred at any one time and/or because fecundity was low. 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