CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE IN ETHIOPIA: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS | 5 Figure 1: Map showing management districts in Ethiopia with the FFP areas highlighted. These gases trap heat through a process called the greenhouse effect . Climate data records provide evidence of climate change key indicators, such as global land and ocean temperature increases; rising sea levels; ice loss at Earth’s poles and in mountain glaciers; frequency and severity changes in extreme weather such as hurricanes, heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, floods and precipitation; and cloud and vegetation cover changes, to name but a few. An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation is called (a) coriolis force Chapter III covers how assessments on climate Climate. Chapter 2. Introduction. Brightness of the Sun 9. Precipitation 6. 6. The Ethiopian Government has already put in place a number of policies, strategies and programs aimed at enhancing the adaptive capacity and reducing climate variability and change. 1.1 Introduction . It is much more tolerant to warm conditions than Arabica coffee. Ethiopia is in the tropical zone laying between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. The scientists from the World Weather Attribution group have agreed to conduct the detailed study, which would involve the precise setting of the parameters in space and time of the rainfall episode being studied, along with the data associated with it, the Climate Center, a specialist center of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), said on Monday. The climate can generally be described as temperate, especially in the large central plateau region. Some of the attempts, such as by You and Ringler (2010), to quantify the effect of climate change in Ethiopia used global models which may misrepresent various dimensions of the Ethiopian economy. This assessment focuses on “attributable risk”: (a) Due to moderating effect of the seas (b) Due to land mass (c) Due to heat conditions (d) Due to none of the above three. They are subject to many influences, including those of the atmosphere, ocean, and land, and are modified by them. Climate information for Ethiopia including average temperature, rain and snowfall totals ii. Rural livelihood systems – crop cultivation, pastoralism, and agro-pastoralism – are highly sensitive to climate. Economic sectors that largely depend on It is affected by long-term trends in average rainfall and temperature, interannual climate variability, shocks during specific phenological ii stages, and extreme weather events (IPCC, 2012). Farms are more likely to face attacks from weeds, diseases and pests, which affect yield. Climate Change Adaptation in ETHIOPIA October 2011 Severe weather events such as droughts and floods have historically imposed heavy costs in Ethiopia. Land and water 4. As variation of solar radiation is the single most important factor affecting climate, it is considered here first. Humidity 5. Robusta coffee is grown at much lower altitudes (sea level-3000 feet) in an area 10° North and South of the equator (Illy, 22). Ethiopia faces numerous development challenges that exacerbate its vulnerability to climate change, including high levels of food insecurity and ongoing conflicts over natural resources. There is some common pattern over a few weeks or months. If global climate change continues on its current trajectory, these risks will increase in future decades to potentially critical levels. (a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Pressure and wind system (d) Continentality. 1. The emerging science of Probabilistic Event Attribution (PEA) [7], however, increasingly allows a quantitative assessment of the extent to which human-induced climate change is affecting local weather events [8-11]. Climate change is a major threat to agriculture. The projected impacts of climate change may affect the consequences of these events, and could potentially hinder advancements in key development areas such as food security, water climate change will also exert evolutionary pressure on species. Latitudes 2. Black dots indicate locations of available weather stations relevant to the FFP areas. Measured data on climate and weather in Ethiopia are scarce, as there are very few weather stations. 300 days of sunshine, blue sky and warm weather makes Namibia a unique travel destination. Subpopulations at the warmer edges of species ranges are being extirpated, causing a loss in genetic diversity (Thomas, 2005). Climate and Weather of Namibia Namibia – one of the sunniest countries in the world. Coffee lovers now consume more than 2.25 billion cups a day, but climate change may increase the cost and harm the taste of this popular beverage--not to mention threaten the livelihoods of … While climate change may disproportionately affect women, it has also led them to seize the levers of power in a moment of profound precarity, to rewrite the rules of society when the current systems of power and economy no longer seem feasible. Examples of countries that have this climate are Kenya, Colombia, and Ethiopia (Illy, 21). The three main categories of health risks include: (i) direct-acting effects (e.g. See Table 1 for details of each area. ELEMENTS AND CONTROLS OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE When studying weather or climate, the elements and controls of each are interchangeable. Air pressure 4. action on climate change, is helping adaptation efforts in developing countries. Worldwide, farmers are struggling to keep up with shifting weather patterns and increasingly unpredictable water supplies. This makes it difficult to understand the climatic impacts on respective components of crop production. Which of the following climatic controls is the most important? Climate change and variability in the Sub-Saharan Africa has considerable impact on agriculture, human health, livestock and the economy (Lipp et al., 2002, Haines and Patz, 2004, Confalonieri et al., 2007, Oscar et al., 2015).According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (), there is significant warming occurring in the Sub-Saharan African countries. Drought is the single most destructive climate-related natural hazard in This implies that the Changes in ocean circulation may affect the climate through the movement of CO2 into or out of the atmosphere. Climate can thus be viewed as a synthesis or aggregate of weather. Storms 10. Solar radiation 3. The Earth’s atmosphere is a complex dynamical, physical, and chemical system. The overall climate of the province is marked by considerable seasonality and volatility, often with short-term changes to the weather patterns that can be difficult to predict. They're totaled and averaged to give an idea of the climate you can expect in a specific area. ELEMENTS 1. Weather and Climate The Structure of the Atmosphere Surrounding the Earth is a gaseous envelope or atmosphere, held in place by the planet’s gravitational attraction. The effects of gradual climate changes and extreme weather events in the recent past have undermined progress in the alleviation of poverty and food insecurity, while also having a negative effect on overall development efforts. Weather changes daily or hourly in some locations. Discussion Paper: Climate, Sanitation and Health - DRAFT 5 Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. However, heat waves can affect the Red Sea and the surrounding area to the east and also in the west in the area bordering Sudan. 7. 9 Overall, climatologists tend to agree that the Sahel’s climate is one of extremes: this implies that exceptional weather and climatic events are paradoxically the norm, especially if longer time-spans are examined. They are: Days are cool or hot; Windy or calm; Cloudy or bright and; Wet or dry. Of those that do exist, we bought all available data from the Ethiopian Climate Institute, which your find summarized below. Visibility CONTROLS 1. Further, different types of climatic extremes can affect crop production differently. The influence of weather and climate on the different components of crop production can vary, and often happen at the same time. Altitude 3. On the basis of the generalised monthly atmospheric conditions, the year is divided into seasons like winter, summer or rainy seasons. Ethiopia: Climate & Weather. Greenhouse gases have a strong affect on climate. Evidences show that … Temperature 2. Kolla (Tropical zone) - is below 1830 metres in elevation and has an average annual temperature of about 27 … Alongside UNDP’s extensive country coverage and programming on poverty reduction and climate change, UN Environment brings its strong global network of insurance companies and other private partners, UNISDR brings its expertise analyzing loss and damage from climate impacts, and WFP leverages its capacity as the world’s largest humanitarian agency with a key focus on social protection … Chapter 1. Table 1: Details of the FFP areas. While greenhouse gases are a natural part of the atmosphere, the amount has increased over the past 150 years as fossil fuels have been burned and the amount of forests, which naturally take up the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide during photosynthesis , has shrunk. (IPCC, 2014b) Resilience: The capacity of social, economic and environmental … A large amount of work has already been carried out by many countries on assessing impacts and vulnerabilities to climate change, as well as considering possible adaptation options. Description of the climate system and its components . Like location, climate has been a decisive factor in shaping the Newfoundland and Labrador experience. Both climate variability and change have been occurring in Ethiopia. With an average of 300 days of sunshine annually Namibia is one of the sunniest countries in worldwide. extreme weather events to past GHG emissions, even in principle. Where, how and when we grow food is vitally connected to our climate's normal patterns. DEFINITION- NASA defines climate change as: “a broad range of global phenomena created predominantly by burning fossil fuels, which add heat-trapping gases to earth’s atmosphere”. Climate - Climate - Solar radiation and temperature: Air temperatures have their origin in the absorption of radiant energy from the Sun. (WHO, 1948) Mitigation of climate change: A human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Dyna-mic processes cover a large range of scales from the microscopic-scale It has three different climate zones according to elevation. Disturbance Regimes and Ecosystem-Level Change Climate change has the potential to have a profound effect … Article Type: Review This review highlights climate change and its drivers, impacts, and mitigation and adaptation options in Ethiopia. iii. Cloudiness 8. Climate change, Ethiopia, Mitigation, Vulnerability. Climate doesn’t change as rapidly as weather does because it’s a compilation of several years of recorded weather conditions like rain, air pressure, humidity, wind, snow, sun and temperatures. It is tilted at an angle of 23.5° to the perpendicular plane of its orbital path. 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